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Received December 24, 1998,Revised March 23, 1999, Accepted , Available online

Volume 12,2000,Pages 241-251

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Membrane fouling curtails severely the economical and practical implementation of membrane process. The fundamental principles and mechanisms of membrane fouling as well as factors affecting fouling have been summarized in this paper. It also has covered three fouling resistance models and four kinds of approaches to improve membrane performance. Membrane cleaning methods are also discussed including physical, chemical,physico-chemical and biological methods. In the four groups of basic cleaning methods, biological cleaning has considerable advantages and potentials. Extensive research work should be carried out further to explore and develop new ideas and techniques in the field of membrane cleaning and restoration.

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