Environmental health and toxicology

Toxicity assessment for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three di erentearthworm test methods

ZHOU Shi-ping , DUAN Chang-qun , FU Hui , CHEN Yu-hui , WANG Xue-hua , YU Ze-fen


Received September 28, 2006,Revised December 15, 2006, Accepted , Available online

Volume 19,2007,Pages 854-858

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Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that di er in e ect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos, and evaluated for acute toxicity, growth, fecundity and avoidance response after a certain exposure period. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). Concentration of 78.91 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos caused significant toxic e ects in all test methods, but at lower test concentrations, only significant chronic toxic e ects could be observed. In present study, chlorpyrifos had adverse e ect on growth and fecundity in earthworm exposed to 5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos after eight weeks. The avoidance response test, however, showed significant repellent e ects at concentration of 40 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos, concentration a ecting avoidance response was far greater than growth and fecundity, it seemed likely that earthworms were not able to escape from pesticide-contaminated soil into the clean soil in field and hence were exposed continuously to elevated concentrations of pesticides.

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