Terrestrial environment

Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

FOZIA Andaleeb , MUHAMMAD Anjum Zia , MUHAMMAD Ashraf , ZAFAR Mahmood Khalid


Received October 05, 2007,Revised March 18, 2008, Accepted , Available online

Volume 20,2008,Pages 1475-1480

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Heavy metal soil pollution takes place when the metal concentration of soil exceeds natural background level and causes ecological destruction and deterioration of the environment. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the e ect of chromium-contaminated soil in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth attributes. Three di erent levels of chromium (Cr) i.e., 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg were applied to three varieties of sunflower (G-3, G-9, and G-59). The results of morphological, chemical, and yield parameters were recorded at crop maturity. The result showed that germination, root, and shoot lengths were decreased with increase in Cr concentrations. A gradual decrease was observed for various morphological parameters like root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights, and plant height with increase in Cr levels. A comparison among Cr treatments obtained a significant decrease in yield parameters as achenes/capitulum, achenes/plant, and 100 achenes weight in three varieties. Cr was significantly absorbed by roots but its transport to other parts of plants was slow, and uptake in seeds was much lower than in roots and shoots.

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