Environmental health and toxicology

Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes inducedby nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinatedbiphenyl congeners in vitro

ZHANG Jianying , ZHANG Hangjun , NI Wanmin


Received November 12, 2008,Revised April 09, 2009, Accepted , Available online

Volume 21,2009,Pages 1284-1289

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Among all the 209 kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners, nonplanar and coplanar PCB congeners have di erent levels of toxicity on mammal cells such as neuronal cells, but little is known about their toxicity on fish cells although PCB congeners usually have high bioaccumulation abilities in the detected fish bodies. This study showed that 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexacholorbiphenyl (PCB153, nonplanar congener) and 3,3’,4,4’,5,5’-hexacholorbiphenyl (PCB169, coplanar congener) caused apoptosis on the isolated crucian carp (Carassius auratus) lymphocytes and the induced cytotoxicity was structure-dependent. According to the laser confocal microscope observations, apoptosis was clearly distinguished by condensation of nucleus, shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. DNA fragmentation was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. These typical morphological and biochemical characteristics indicate the occurrence of apoptosis on fish lymphocytes. According to the flow cytometry analysis, after the cells were exposed to 10 mol/L PCBs for 3 h, the apoptotic percentage induced by PCB153 was 23.41%, while that induced by PCB169 was even higher (31.03%). Furthermore, incubating PCBs with fish lymphocytes enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), clearly indicating the presence of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Our data also demonstrate that the di erent cytotoxic e ects induced by coplanar and nonplanar PCBs were correlated with their structural characteristics and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

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