Atmospheric environment

Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. as trace element bioindicators: Statistical comparison of bioaccumulative properties


Sabina Dołęgowska , Zdzisław M. Migaszewski , Artur Michalik

DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60040-0

Received April 18, 2012,Revised August 13, 2012, Accepted , Available online February 02, 2013

Volume ,2013,Pages 340-347

The principal objective of this study was to compare bioaccumulative properties of two terrestrial moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area (south-central Poland), using various statistical techniques. Forty-six moss samples from 23 sampling sites located within the city limits were analyzed for 33 trace elements. The results indicated that 17 elements (Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sm, V, Y) dominated in H. splendens, whereas only three elements (Mn, Sr, Zn) occurred in excessive amounts in P. schreberi. No differences in the distribution pattern of Dy, Er, Ho, Sn, Tb, Th and Yb were observed. The element concentration ratio (PI/Hy) varied from 0.50 to 1.19. For 14 elements (Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sm, Th, V), PI/Hy<1; for 4 elements (Cd, Mn, Sr, Zn), PI/Hy>1; for 7 elements (Ba, Dy, Er, Eu, Pr, Y, Yb), PI/Hy=equalled 1. Czekanowski's method showed similarities in rare earth element concentrations for both moss species. The cluster analysis exhibited three significant clusters at Dlink/Dmax×100<50 for both moss species. Strong positive Spearman correlations between both moss species were recorded for the following pairs: Ba-Ba, Co-Co, Er-Er, Eu-Eu, Gd Gd, Mn-Mn, Ni-Ni, Pb-Pb, Pr-Pr, Sm-Sm, Th-Th, Y-Y, and Yb-Yb. Nonparametric tests (Sign test, Wilcoxon tests) showed statistically significant differences only for Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr. The scanning electron microscope study of H. splendens and P. schreberi revealed a different morphology of these species with no injuries.

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