Physical, chemical and biochemical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depend to a great extent on their size, shape, size distribution, and stabilizers located on their surface. This study focused on two typical stabilizers, namely citrates (cit), low molecular ions protecting nanoparticles by electrostatic repulsion, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a hydrophilic, neutral, high molecular polymer protecting nanoparticles by steric stabilization. Natural bacterioplankton was collected from a eutrophic, downtown lake and exposed to five concentrations (0.1-5 mg/L) of AgNPs-PVP and AgNPs-cit. Responses were monitored after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of exposure, by evaluating the survival rate of bacteria, their respiratory activity, and the general activity of extracellular esterases. A significantly better (greater) survival rate of bacterioplankton was observed in water with an addition of AgNPs-cit. The inhibition of extracellular esterases was observed only in samples containing AgNPs-PVP. The inhibitory effect increased proportionally to the concentration of AgNPs-PVP applied. Within the studied concentration range, there was no statistically significant inhibition of bacterioplankton respiratory activity by AgNPs-PVP and AgNPs-cit.