Environmental catalysis and materials
Effect of TiO2 calcination temperature on the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous NH3
Received April 13, 2013,Revised May 27, 2013, Accepted , Available online March 04, 2014
Volume 26,2014,Pages 673-682
Carbon-modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by a sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor, with calcination at various temperatures, and tested for the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of gaseous NH3 under visible and UV light. The test results showed that no samples had visible light activity, while the TiO2 calcined at 400℃ had the best UV light activity among the series of catalysts, and was even much better than the commercial catalyst P25. The catalysts were then characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry coupled with mass spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. It was shown that the carbon species residuals on the catalyst surfaces induced the visible light adsorption of the samples calcined in the low temperature range (< 300℃). However, the surface acid sites played a determining role in the PCO of NH3 under visible and UV light over the series of catalysts. Although the samples calcined at low temperatures had very high SSA, good crystallinity, strong visible light absorption and also low PL emission intensity, they showed very low PCO activity due to their very low number of acid sites for NH3 adsorption and activation. The TiO2 sample calcined at 400℃ contained the highest number of acid sites among the series of catalysts, therefore showing the highest performance for the PCO of NH3 under UV light.
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