Regular articles

Distribution of chlorpyrifos in rice paddy environment and its potential dietary risk

Chenglin Zhao , Feifei Liu , Guonian Zhu , Yan Fu , Yihua Liu , Ying Zhao


Received November 18, 2014,Revised February 04, 2015, Accepted February 15, 2015, Available online June 29, 2015

Volume 35,2015,Pages 101-107

Chlorpyrifos is one of the most extensively used insecticides in China. The distribution and residues of chlorpyrifos in a paddy environment were characterized under field and laboratory conditions. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos in the two conditions were 0.9–3.8 days (field) and 2.8–10.3 days (laboratory), respectively. The initial distribution of chlorpyrifos followed the increasing order of water < straw < soil, and soil was characterized as the major absorber. The ultimate residues in rice grain were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) with a harvest interval of 14 days. The chronic exposure for chlorpyrifos was rather low compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.01 mg/kg bw) due to rice consumption. The chronic exposure risk from chlorpyrifos in rice grain was 5.90% and 1.30% ADI from field and laboratory results respectively. Concerning the acute dietary exposure, intake estimated for the highest chlorpyrifos level did not exceed the acute reference dose (ARfD = 0.1 mg/kg bw). The estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) were 0.78% and 0.25% of the ARfD for chlorpyrifos. The results showed that the use of chlorpyrifos in rice paddies was fairly safe for consumption of rice grain by consumers.

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