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Excretion of manure-borne estrogens and androgens and their potential risk estimation in the Yangtze River Basin

Bei Liu , Boyang Hu , Linjie Cheng , Min Gao , Shiying Gao , Shufang Liu , Xuelian Zhang , Yanxia Li


Received January 07, 2015,Revised March 15, 2015, Accepted March 20, 2015, Available online August 21, 2015

Volume 37,2015,Pages 110-117

The Yangtze River is the longest river in China, and the river basin spans one fifth of the area of the whole country. Based on statistical data, the excretion of manure-borne steroid hormones, including steroid estrogens (SEs) and steroid androgens (SAs), in 10 provinces of China within the region has been estimated. The potential environmental and ecological risk of manure-borne steroid estrogens to the surface water in this region was also assessed. The manure-borne SE and SA excretions in the 10 provinces and municipalities vary in the order: Sichuan > Hunan > Hubei > Yunnan > Jiangsu > Anhui > Jiangxi > Chongqing > Qinghai > Shanghai. The highest increase of manure-borne SEs (1434.3 kg) and SAs (408.5 kg) was found in Hunan and Hubei provinces, respectively, and the total excretion in 2013 was 65% more than 15 years earlier in these two provinces. However, the emissions in Anhui and Shanghai decreased in this 15 year period of time. Swine urine, chicken feces, cattle urine, and laying hen feces were considered the dominant sources of manure-borne E1, βE2, αE2, and SAs, respectively. Although Jiangsu province did not have the largest excretion of manure-borne SEs, it had the highest level of predicted 17β-estradiol equivalency (EEQs) value of 16.65 ng/L in surface water because of the limited surface water resources. According to the lowest observable effect level of 10 ng/L for 17β-estradiol, the manure-borne SEs in Jiangsu province might potentially pose ecological risk to its wild aquatic organisms.

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