Potential of capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry for the characterization and monitoring of amine-derivatized naphthenic acids from oil sands process-affected water

Matthew S. MacLennan , Cai Tie , Kevin Kovalchik , Kerry M. Peru , Xinxiang Zhang , John V. Headley , David D.Y. Chen


Received March 31, 2016,Revised May 09, 2016, Accepted June 01, 2016, Available online July 19, 2016

Volume 28,2016,Pages 203-212

Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE–MS) was used for the analysis of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs) of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A standard mixture of amine-derivatized naphthenic acids is injected directly onto the CE column and analyzed by CE–MS in less than 15 min. Time of flight MS analysis (TOFMS), optimized for high molecular weight ions, showed NAFCs between 250 and 800 m/z. With a quadrupole mass analyzer, only low-molecular weight NAFCs (between 100 and 450 m/z) are visible under our experimental conditions. Derivatization of NAFCs consisted of two-step amidation reactions mediated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), or mediated by a mixture of EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide, in dimethyl sulfoxide, dichloromethane or ethyl acetate. The optimum background electrolyte composition was determined to be 30% (V/V) methanol in water and 2% (V/V) formic acid. NAFCs extracted from OSPW in the Athabasca oil sands region were used to demonstrate the feasibility of CE–MS for the analysis of NAFCs in environmental samples, showing that the labeled naphthenic acids are in the mass range of 350 to 1500 m/z.

Copyright © Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press. All rights reserved.京ICP备05002858号-3