PM2.5 concentration estimation using convolutional neural network and gradient boosting machine

Huan Liu , Zhenyu Luo , Feifan Huang


Received January 26, 2020,Revised , Accepted April 26, 2020, Available online June 14, 2020

Volume 32,2020,Pages 85-93

Surface monitoring, vertical atmospheric column observation, and simulation using chemical transportation models are three dominant approaches for perception of fine particles with diameters less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) concentration. Here we explored an image-based methodology with a deep learning approach and machine learning approach to extend the ability on PM2.5 perception. Using 6976 images combined with daily weather conditions and hourly time data in Shanghai (2016), trained by hourly surface monitoring concentrations, an end-to-end model consisting of convolutional neural network and gradient boosting machine (GBM) was constructed. The mean absolute error, the root-mean-square error and the R-squared for PM2.5 concentration estimation using our proposed method is 3.56, 10.02, and 0.85 respectively. The transferability analysis showed that networks trained in Shanghai, fine-tuned with only 10% of images in other locations, achieved performances similar to ones from trained on data from target locations themselves. The sensitivity of different regions in the image to PM2.5 concentration was also quantified through the analysis of feature importance in GBM. All the required inputs in this study are commonly available, which greatly improved the accessibility of PM2.5 concentration for placed and period with no surface observation. And this study makes an exploratory attempt on pollution monitoring using graph theory and deep learning approach.

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