In recent decades, coastal ports have experienced rapid development and become an important economic and ecological hub in China. Atmospheric particle is a research hotspot in atmospheric environmental sciences in inland regions. However, few studies on the atmospheric particle were conducted in coastal port areas in China, which indeed suffers atmospheric particle pollution. Lack of the physicochemical characteristics of fine particles serves as an obstacle toward the accurate control for air pollution in the coastal port area in China. Here, a field observation was conducted in an important coastal port city in Yangtze River Delta from March 6 to March 19, 2019. The average PM2.5 concentration was 63.7 ± 27.8 μg/m3 and NO3—, SO42—, NH4+, and organic matter accounted for ~60% of PM2.5. Fe was the most abundant trace metal element and V as the ship emission indicator was detected. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that SK-rich, soot, Fe, SK-soot and SK-Fe were the major individual particles in the coastal port. V and soluble Fe were detected in sulfate coating of SK-Fe particles. We found that anthropogenic emissions, marine sea salt, and secondary atmosphere process were the major sources of fine particles. Backward trajectory analysis indicated that the dominant air masses were marine air mass, inland air mass from northern Zhejiang and inland-marine mixed air mass from Shandong and Shanghai during the sampling period. The findings can help us better understand the physicochemical properties of atmospheric fine particles in the coastal port of Eastern China.