Impact of environmental factors on the sampling rate of β-blockers and sulfonamides from water by a carbon nanotube-passive sampler

Monika Paszkiewicz , Klaudia Godlewska , Aleksandra Jakubus , Piotr Stepnowski


Received June 24, 2020,Revised , Accepted August 31, 2020, Available online September 17, 2020

Volume 101,2021,Pages 413-427

Passive techniques are a constantly evolving approach to the long-term monitoring of micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, in the aquatic environment. This paper presents, for the first time, the calibration results of a new CNTs-PSDs (carbon nanotubes used as a sorbent in passive sampling devices) with an examination of the effect of donor phase salinity, water pH and the concentration of dissolved humic acids (DHAs), using both ultrapure and environmental waters. Sampling rates (Rs) were determined for the developed kinetic samplers. It has been observed that the impact of the examined environmental factors on the Rs values strictly depends on the type of the analytes. In the case of β-blockers, the only environmental parameter affecting their uptake rate was the salinity of water. A certain relationship was noted, namely the higher the salt concentration in water, the lower the Rs values of β-blockers. In the case of sulfonamides, water salinity, water pH 7–9 and DHAs concentration decreased the uptake rate of these compounds by CNTs-PSDs. The determined Rs values differed in particular when the values obtained from the experiments carried out using ultrapure water and environmental waters were compared. The general conclusion is that the calibration of novel CNTs-PSDs should be carried out under physicochemical conditions of the aquatic phase that are similar to the environmental matrix.

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