Terrestrial environment

Mobilities and leachabilities of heavy metals in sludge with humus soil

Rui Zhu , Min Wu , Jian Yang


Received April 04, 2010,Revised September 03, 2010, Accepted , Available online

Volume 23,2011,Pages 247-254

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Chemical forms of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb in municipal sewage sludge were investigated by adding humus soil to sludge and by performing sequential extraction procedures. In the final sludge mixtures, Zn and Ni were mainly found in Fe/Mn oxide-bound (F3) and organic matter/sulfide-bound (F4) forms. For Zn, exchangeable (F1), carbonate-bound (F2), and F3 forms were transformed to F4 and residual forms (F5). For Ni, F1 and F2 forms were transformed to F1, F2, and F3 forms. Both Cu and Pb were strongly associated with the stable forms F4 and F5. For Cu, F2 and F3 forms were major contributors, while for Pb, F3 and F4 forms were major contributors to F5. Humus soil dosage and pH conditions in the sludge were strongly correlated with the forms of heavy metals. Five forms were used to evaluate metal mobilities in the initial and final sludge mixtures. The mobilities of the four heavy metals studied decreased after 28 days. The metal mobilities in the final sludge mixtures were ranked in the following order: Ni > Zn > Cu = Pb. Leaching tests showed that the mobilities of Zn and Ni in lower pH conditions (pH 4) were higher than those in higher pH conditions (pH 8).

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