Atmospheric environment

Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

Khamphe Phoungthong , Surajit Tekasakul , Perapong Tekasakul , Gumpon Prateepchaikul , Naret Jindapetch , Masami Furuuchi , Mitsuhiko Hata


Received July 13, 2012,Revised September 12, 2012, Accepted , Available online April 04, 2013

Volume ,2013,Pages 751-757

Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaPeq decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

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