Sources and characteristics of fine particles over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea using online single particle aerosol mass spectrometer

Huaiyu Fu , Mei Zheng , Caiqing Yan , Xiaoying Li , Huiwang Gao , Xiaohong Yao , Zhigang Guo , Yuanhang Zhang


Received May 05, 2014,Revised September 16, 2014, Accepted , Available online March 13, 2015

Volume 27,2015,Pages 62-70

Marine aerosols over the East China Seas are heavily polluted by continental sources. During the Chinese Comprehensive Ocean Experiment in November 2012, size and mass spectra of individual atmospheric particles in the size range from 0.2 to 2.0 μm weremeasured onboardby a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). The average hourly particle number (PN) was around 4560 ± 3240 in the South Yellow Sea (SYS), 2900 ± 3970 in the North Yellow Sea (NYS), and 1700 ± 2220 in the Bohai Sea (BS). PN in NYS and BS varied greatly over 3 orders of magnitude, while that in SYS varied slightly. The size distributions were fitted with two log-normal modes. Accumulation mode dominated in NYS and BS, especially during episodic periods. Coarse mode particles played an important role in SYS. Particles were classified using an adaptive resonance theory based neural network algorithm (ART-2a). Six particle types were identified with secondary-containing, aged sea-salt, soot-like, biomass burning, fresh sea-salt, and lead-containing particles accounting for 32%, 21%, 18%, 16%, 4%, and 3% of total PN, respectively. Aerosols in BS were relatively enriched in particles from anthropogenic sources compared to SYS, probably due to emissions from more developed upwind regions and indicating stronger influence of continental outflowonmarine environment. Variation of source types dependedmainly on origins of transported air masses. This study examined rapid changes in PN, size distribution and source types of fine particles in marine atmospheres. It also demonstrated the effectiveness of high-time-resolution source apportionment by ART-2a.

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