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Composition and source apportionment of dust fall around a natural lake

Mohd Talib Latif , Sofia Aida Ngah , Doreena Dominick , Intan Suraya Razak , Xinxin Guo , Thunwadee Srithawirat , Idris Mushrifah


Received September 12, 2014,Revised November 19, 2014, Accepted February 28, 2015, Available online May 06, 2015

Volume 27,2015,Pages 143-155

The aim of this study was to determine the source apportionment of dust fall around Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples were collected monthly between December 2012 and March 2013 at seven sampling stations located around Lake Chini. The samples were filtered to separate the dissolved and undissolved solids. The ionic compositions (NO3, SO42 −, Cl and NH4+) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) while major elements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Al, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentration of total solids around Lake Chini was 93.49 ± 16.16 mg/(m2·day). SO42 −, Na and Zn dominated the dissolved portion of the dust fall. The enrichment factors (EF) revealed that the source of the trace metals and major elements in the rain water was anthropogenic, except for Fe. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified the seven monitoring stations and 16 variables into five groups and three groups respectively. A coupled receptor model, principal component analysis multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), revealed that the sources of dust fall in Lake Chini were dominated by agricultural and biomass burning (42%), followed by the earth's crust (28%), sea spray (16%) and a mixture of soil dust and vehicle emissions (14%).

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