Regular articles

Environmental behaviors of phoxim with two formulations in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching

Danyu Shen , Donglian Zhong , Fubin Tang , Runhong Mo , Yihua Liu , Zhanglin Ni


Received November 27, 2014,Revised March 15, 2015, Accepted March 16, 2015, Available online June 17, 2015

Volume 35,2015,Pages 91-100

Phoxim (emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and granules (G)) has been widely used in bamboo forests. The persistence and magnitude of phoxim residues in the crop and soil must be investigated to ensure human and environmental safety. The environmental behaviors of the two formulations were investigated in a bamboo forest under soil surface mulching conditions (CP) and non-covered cultivation conditions (NCP). The half-lives of phoxim in soil under the two conditions in soil were 4.1–6.2 days (EC) and 31.5–49.5 days (G), respectively. Phoxim in EC could be leached from the topsoil into the subsoil. A minimized leaching effect was observed for G under NCP. Inversely, an enhanced leaching effect was observed for G under CP. The G formulation resulted in more parent compound (in bamboo shoots) and metabolite (in soil) residues of phoxim than in the case of EC, especially under CP conditions. In addition, the intensity and duration of the formulation effect on soil pH adjustment from G were more obvious than that from EC. Results showed that the environmental behaviors (distribution, degradation, residue) of phoxim in the bamboo forest were significantly influenced by the type of formulation. The prolongation effect from phoxim G might cause persistence and long-term environmental risk. However, bamboo shoot consumption could be considered relatively safe after applying the recommended dose of the two phoxim formulations.

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