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Microcystin accumulation and biochemical responses in the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. exposed to cyanobacterial crude extract

Thanh-Luu Pham , Kazuya Shimizu , Ayako Kanazawa , Yu Gao , Thanh-Son Dao , Motoo Utsumi


Received June 03, 2015,Revised September 10, 2015, Accepted September 15, 2015, Available online January 23, 2016

Volume 28,2016,Pages 120-130

We investigated the accumulation and effects of cyanobacterial crude extract (CCE) containing microcystins (MCs) on the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. Toxic effects were evaluated through the activity of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) from gills, foot, mantle and remaining soft tissues. Clams were exposed to CCE containing 400 μg MC-LReq/L for 10 days and were then kept in toxin-free water for 5 days. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 3.41 ± 0.63 μg/g dry weight (DW) of unbound MC and 0.31 ± 0.013 μg/g DW of covalently bound MC). Detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in different organs responded differently to CCE during the experiment. The activity of SOD, CAT, and GST in the gills and mantle increased in MC-treated clams. In contrast, CAT and GST activity was significantly inhibited in the foot and mostly only slightly changed in the remaining tissues. The responses of biotransformation, antioxidant enzyme activity to CCE and the fast elimination of MCs during depuration help to explain how the clam can survive for long periods (over a week) during the decay of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in nature.

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