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Biofouling characteristics of algae on hardened Portland cement pastes admixed with Bi(OH)3, TiO2 and Al2O3 in fresh and marine environments

Eisa Hekal , Fayza Sayed Hashem , Hoda Anwar Mansour


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Laboratory and field experiments carried out to examine the biofouling of algae on the surface of Portland cement in both fresh and marine Egyptian environments. In the study, Portland cement specimens are admixed with Bi(OH)3, TiO2 and Al2O3 as examples for antifouling chemicals. According to the field experiments, bismuth hydroxide shows the most antifouling effect in both fresh and marine environments followed by titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide. This antifouling effect reflected on the mechanical properties and the phase compositions of the hardened cement specimens. Admixing OPC with low concentrations of titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide and bismuth hydroxide may be consider as eco-friendly antifouling substances. Moreover, the studied fresh and marine water samples collected from side the cured cement in the studied fields showed an irregular fluctuation in most physico-chemical parameters.

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