Treatability studies of naphthalene in soil, water and air with persulfate activated by iron(II)


Osvaldo Chiavone-Filho , Gabriela P. Mendes , Vivian M.A. Magalhães , Lélia C.R. Soares , Rayanne M. Aranha , Claudio A.O. Nascimento , Marilda M.G.R. Vianna

DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2019.11.015

Received April 10, 2019,Revised , Accepted November 06, 2019, Available online December 09, 2019

Volume 32,2020,Pages 67-77

Chemical oxidation was applied to an artificially contaminated soil with naphthalene (NAP). Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. The importance of the air phase analysis was emphasized by demonstrating how NAP behaves in a sealed system over a 4 hr reaction period. Design of Experiments method was applied to the following variables: sodium persulfate concentration [SP], ferrous sulfate concentration [FeSO4], and pH. The system operated with a prefixed solid to liquid ratio of 1:2. The following conditions resulted in optimum NAP removal [SP] = 18.37 g/L, [FeSO4] = 4.25 g/L and pH = 3.00. At the end of the 4 hr reaction, 62% of NAP was degraded. In the soil phase, the chemical oxidation reduced the NAP concentration thus achieving levels which comply with Brazilian and USA environmental legislations. Besides the NAP partitioning view, the monitoring of each phase allowed the variabilities assessment over the process, refining the knowledge of mass reduction. Based on NAP distribution in the system, this study demonstrates the importance of evaluating the presence of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds in the air phase during remediation, so that there is greater control of the system as to the distribution and presence of the contaminant in the environment. The results highlight the importance of treating the contaminant in all its phases at the contaminated site.

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