Green and efficient degradation of cefoperazone sodium by Bi4O5Br2 leading to the production of non-toxic products: Performance and degradation pathway

Changying Yang , Yingying Chen , Ruiping Li , Yan Gu , Hailin Tian , Yingping Huang , Junsong Chen , Yanfen Fang


Received March 18, 2020,Revised , Accepted July 27, 2020, Available online August 07, 2020

Volume 100,2021,Pages 203-215

Photocatalytic process represents a promising approach to overcome the pollution challenge associated with the antibiotics-containing wastewater. This study provides a green, efficient and novel approach to remove cephalosporins, particularly cefoperazone sodium (CFP). Bi4O5Br2 was chosen for the first time to systematically study its degradation for CFP, including the analysis of material structure, degradation performance, the structure and toxicity of the transformation products, etc. The degradation rate results indicated that Bi4O5Br2 had an excellent catalytic activity leading to 78% CFP removal compared with the pure BiOBr (38%) within 120 min of visible light irradiation. In addition, the Bi4O5Br2 presents high stability and good organic carbon removal efficiency. The effects of the solution pH (3.12 - 8.75) on catalytic activity revealed that CFP was mainly photocatalyzed under acidic conditions and hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions. Combined with active species and degradation product identification, the photocatalytic degradation pathways of CFP by Bi4O5Br2 was proposed, including hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction and decarboxylation. Most importantly, the identified products were all hydrolysis rather than oxidation byproducts transformed from the intermediate of β-lactam bond cleavage in CFP molecule, quite different from the mostly previous studies. Furthermore, the final products were demonstrated to be less toxic through the toxicity analysis. Overall, this study illustrates the detailed mechanism of CFP degradation by Bi4O5Br2 and confirms Bi4O5Br2 to be a promising material for the photodegradation of CFP.

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