Variation characteristics of fine particulate matter and its components in diesel vehicle emission plumes

Kebin He , Xianbao Shen , Jiateng Hao , Lei Kong , Yue Shi , Xinyue Cao , Jiacheng Shi , Zhiliang Yao , Xin Li , Bobo Wu , Yiming Xu


Received October 30, 2020,Revised , Accepted January 31, 2021, Available online February 24, 2021

Volume 33,2021,Pages 138-149

A rapid reaction occurs near the exhaust nozzle when vehicle emissions contact the air. Twenty diesel vehicles were studied using a new multipoint sampling system that is suitable for studying the exhaust plume near the exhaust nozzle. The variation characteristics of fine particle matter (PM2.5) and its components in diesel vehicle exhaust plumes were analyzed. The PM2.5 emissions gradually increased with increasing distance from the nozzle in the plume. Elemental carbon emissions remained basically unchanged, organic carbon and total carbon (TC) increased with increasing distance. The concentrations of SO42−, NO3 and NH4+ (SNA) directly emitted by the vehicles were very low but increased rapidly in the exhaust plume. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reduced 42.7% TC, 40% NO3 emissions, but increased 104% SO42− and 36% NH4+ emissions, respectively. In summary, the SCR reduced 29% primary PM2.5 emissions for the tested diesel vehicles. The NH4NO3 particle formation maybe more important in the plume, and there maybe other forms of formation of NH4+ (eg. NH4Cl). The generation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) plays a leading role in the generation of secondary PM2.5. The SCR enhanced the formation of SOC and SNA in the plume, but comprehensive analysis shows that the SCR more enhanced the SNA formation in the plume, which is mainly new particles formation process. The inconsistency between secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol definitions is one of the important reasons for the difference between SOA simulation and observation.

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