Improving our understanding of air pollutant emissions from the asphalt industry is critical for the development and implementation of pollution control policies. In this study, the spatial distribution of potential maximum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures, as well as the particulate matter (PM), asphalt fume, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), VOCs, and benzoapyrene (BaP) emissions from typical processes (e.g., asphalt and concrete mixing stations, asphalt heating boilers, and asphalt storage tanks) in asphalt mixing plants, were determined in Beijing in 2017. The results indicated that the potential maximum emissions of VOCs in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures were 18,001 ton, with a large contribution from the districts of Daxing, Changping, and Tongzhou. The total emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, VOCs, and BaP from asphalt mixing plants were 3.1, 12.6, 3.1, 23.5, and 1.9 × 10−3 ton, respectively. The emissions of PM from asphalt and concrete mixing stations contributed the most to the total emissions. The asphalt storage tank was the dominant emission source of VOCs, accounting for 96.1% of the total VOCs emissions in asphalt mixing plants, followed by asphalt heating boilers. The districts of Daxing, Changping, and Shunyi were the dominant regions for the emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, and BaP, while the districts of Shunyi, Tongzhou, and Changping contributed the most emissions of VOCs.