The control of red water occurrence and opportunistic pathogens risks in drinking water distribution systems: A review

Baoyou Shi , Haibo Wang , Chun Hu


Received March 10, 2021,Revised , Accepted March 10, 2021, Available online March 26, 2021

Volume 33,2021,Pages 92-98

Many problems in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) are caused by microbe, such as biofilm formation, biocorrosion and opportunistic pathogens growth. More iron release from corrosion scales may induce red water. Biofilm played great roles on the corrosion. The iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) promoted corrosion. However, when iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) became the main bacteria in biofilm, they could induce iron redox cycling in corrosion process. This process enhanced the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of more Fe3O4 in corrosion scales, which inhibited corrosion effectively. Therefore, the IRB and NRB in the biofilm can reduce iron release and red water occurrence. Moreover, there are many opportunistic pathogens in biofilm of DWDSs. The opportunistic pathogens growth in DWDSs related to the bacterial community changes due to the effects of micropollutants. Micropollutants increased the number of bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Furthermore, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production was increased by the antibiotic resistant bacteria, leading to greater bacterial aggregation and adsorption, increasing the chlorine-resistance capability, which was responsible for the enhancement of the particle-associated opportunistic pathogens in DWDSs. Moreover, O3-biological activated carbon filtration-UV-Cl2 treatment could be used to control the iron release, red water occurrence and opportunistic pathogens growth in DWDSs.

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