Energy-efficient removal of carbamazepine in solution by electrocoagulation-electrofenton using a novel P-rGO cathode

Fei Qi , Zhihui Xiao , Tingyu Cui , Zhenbei Wang , Yan Dang , Meijie Zheng , Yixinfei Lin , Zilong Song , Yiping Wang , Chao Liu , Bingbing Xu , Amir Ikhlaq , Jolanta Kumirska , Ewa Maria Siedlecka


Received May 04, 2021,Revised , Accepted July 18, 2021, Available online August 02, 2021

Volume 34,2022,Pages 88-102

In this study, carbamazepine (CBZ) decay in solution has been studied by coupling electrocoagulation with electro-Fenton (EC-EF) with a novel P-rGO/carbon felt (CF) cathode, aiming to accelerate the in-situ generation of •OH, instead of adding Fe2+ and H2O2. Firstly, the fabricated P-rGO and its derived cathode were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM, XPS and electrochemical test (EIS, CV and LSV). Secondly, it was confirmed that the performance in removal efficiency and electric energy consumption (EEC) by EC-EF (kobs=0.124 min−1, EEC=43.98 kWh/kg CBZ) was better than EF (kobs=0.069 min−1, EEC=61.04 kWh/kg CBZ). Then, P-rGO/CF (kobs=0.248 min−1, EEC=29.47 kWh/kg CBZ, CE=61.04%) showed the best performance in EC-EF, among all studied heteroatom-doped graphene/CF. This superior performance may be associated with its largest layer spacing and richest C=C, which can promote the electron transfer rate and conductivity of the cathode. Thus, more H2O2 and •OH could be produced to degrade CBZ, and almost 100% CBZ was removed with kobs being 0.337 min−1 and the EEC was only 24.18 kWh/kg CBZ, under the optimal conditions (P-rGO loading was 6.0 mg/cm2, the current density was 10.0 mA/cm2, the gap between electrode was 2.0 cm). Additionally, no matter the influent is acidic, neutral or alkaline, no additional pH adjustment is required for the effluent of EC-EF. At last, an inconsecutive empirical kinetic model was firstly established to predict the effect of operating parameters on CBZ removal.

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