Presence of organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs) in different functional areas in residential homes in Beijing, China

Guibin Jiang , Kun Lv , Lu Bai , Boyu Song , Xindong Ma , Minmin Hou , Jie Fu , Yali Shi , Yawei Wang


Received July 27, 2021,Revised , Accepted July 28, 2021, Available online August 14, 2021

Volume 34,2022,Pages 277-285

The production and application of organophosphate esters (OPEs) have dramatically increased in recent years due to their use as a replacement for brominated flame retardants. In this study, 13 OPEs (Σ13OPEs) were analyzed in indoor air samples from kitchens and living rooms in 14 residential homes in Beijing, China. The concentrations of Σ13OPEs in kitchen air samples (mean: 13 ng/m3) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in living room air samples (5.0 ng/m3). In addition, paired window surface organic film samples were collected and analyzed to investigate film-air partitioning, exhibiting a mean concentration of Σ13OPEs of 4100 ng/m2. The congener profiles showed that tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the predominant compound in both window film samples (48%) and the corresponding indoor air sample (56%). The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of OPEs via indoor air inhalation were 2.8 and 1.4 ng/kg/day for infants and adults, respectively, both of which are below the reference dose values (RfDs). Overall, these findings indicate that OPEs in the indoor air environment of residential homes in Beijing are not likely to pose a health risk to the general population.

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