Phenol degradation in waters with high iodide level by layered double hydroxide-peroxodisulfate: Pathways and products

Xin Huang , Qingqing Su , Peiyue Gao , Ning Li , Feifei Wang


Received April 16, 2021,Revised , Accepted August 07, 2021, Available online January 10, 2022

Volume 34,2022,Pages 14-24

Recently, layered double hydroxide-peroxodisulfate (LDH-PDS) as an advanced oxidation system can effectively remove organics by the pathway of free radical. However, little has been known if there is a potential risk regarding the formation of high toxic iodine byproducts through another pathway when LDH-PDS is used in high iodide waters at coastal areas. Therefore, this study investigated phenol degradation pathways and transformation products to evaluate both removal mechanism and potential risk by LDH-PDS in high iodide waters. The results showed that in LDH-PDS system, with the degradation of PDS, phenol degraded till below detection limit in 1 hr in the presence of iodide, while PDS and phenol were hardly degraded in the absence of iodide, indicating iodide accelerated the transformation of PDS and the degradation of phenol. What is more, it reached the highest phenol removal efficiency under the condition of 100 mg/L LDH, 0.1 mmol/L PDS and 1.0 mmol/L iodide. In LDH-PDS system, iodide was rapidly oxidized by the highly active interlayer PDS, resulting in the formation of reactive iodine including hypoiodic acid, iodine and triiodide instead of free radicals, which contributed rapid degradation of phenol. However, unfortunately toxic iodophenols were detected. Specifically, 2-iodophenol and 4-iodophenol were formed firstly, afterwards 2,4-diiodophenol and 2,6-diiodophenol were produced, and finally iodophenols and diiodophenols gradually decreased and 2,4,6-Triiodophenol were produced. These results indicated that LDH-PDS should avoid to use in high iodide waters to prevent toxic iodine byproduct formation although iodide can accelerate phenol degradation.

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