To investigate the characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and its chemical compositions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown, the ground-based data of PM2.5, trace gases, water-soluble inorganic ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed in three typical cities (Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding) in the BTH region of China from 5-15 February 2020. The PM2.5 source apportionment was established by combining the weather research and forecasting model and comprehensive air quality model with extensions (WRF-CAMx). The results showed that the maximum daily PM2.5 concentration reached the heavy pollution level (>150 μg/m3) in the above three cities. The sum concentration of SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ played a dominant position in PM2.5 chemical compositions of Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding; secondary transformation of gaseous pollutants contributed significantly to PM2.5 generation, and the secondary transformation was enhanced as the increased PM2.5 concentrations. The results of WRF-CAMx showed obviously inter-transport of PM2.5 in the BTH region; the contribution of transportation source decreased significantly than previous reports in Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding during the COVID-19 lockdown; but the contribution of industrial and residential emission sources increased significantly with the increase of PM2.5 concentration, and industry emission sources contributed the most to PM2.5 concentrations. Therefore, control policies should be devoted to reducing industrial emissions and regional joint control strategies to mitigate haze pollution.