The interaction mechanisms of co-existing polybrominated diphenyl ethers and engineered nanoparticles in environmental waters: A critical review

Yanju Liu , Anwar Ul Haq Khan , Ravi Naidu , Raja Dharmarajan , Cheng Fang , Hokyong Shon , Zhaomin Dong


Received July 26, 2021,Revised , Accepted October 13, 2021, Available online February 02, 2022

Volume 35,2023,Pages 227-252

This review focuses on the occurrence and interactions of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water systems and the generation of highly complex compounds in the environment. The release of ENPs and BFRs (e.g. PBDEs) to aquatic environments during their usage and disposal are summarised together with their key interaction mechanisms. The major interaction mechanisms including electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrophobic, molecular bridging and steric, hydrogen and π-bonding, cation bridging and ligand exchange were identified. The presence of ENPs could influence the fate and behaviour of PBDEs through the interactions as well as induced reactions under certain conditions which increases the formation of complex compounds. The interaction leads to alteration of behaviour for PBDEs and their toxic effects to ecological receptors. The intermingled compound (ENPs-BFRs) would show different behaviour from the parental ENPs or BFRs, which are currently lack of investigation. This review provided insights on the interactions of ENPs and BFRs in artificial, environmental water systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are important for a comprehensive risk assessment.

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