## Modeling of spatial and temporal variations of ozone-NOx-VOC sensitivity based on photochemical indicators in China

Fan Meng , Xiaohui Du , Wei Tang , Miaomiao Cheng , Zhongzhi Zhang , Yang Li , Yu Li , Maofa Ge , Yujing Mu , Jianmin Chen , Min Shao , Zifa Wang

DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2021.12.026

Received May 25, 2021,Revised , Accepted December 25, 2021, Available online January 05, 2022

Volume 34,2022,Pages 454-464

Comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx)-decoupled direct method (DDM) was used to simulate ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity of for May–November in 2016–2018 in China. Based on the relationship between the simulated ozone (O3) sensitivity values and the ratio of formaldehyde (HCHO) to NO2 (FNR) and the ratio of production rate of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to production rate of nitric acid (HNO3) (${P}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}}/{P}_{\text{HN}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}$), the localized range of FNR and ${P}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}}/{P}_{\text{HN}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}$ thresholds in different regions in China were obtained. The overall simulated FNR values are about 1.640–2.520, and ${P}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}}/{P}_{\text{HN}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}$ values are about 0.540–0.830 for the transition regime. Model simulated O3 sensitivities or region specific FNR or ${P}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}}/{P}_{\text{HN}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}$ thresholds should be applied to ensure the accurate local O3 sensitivity regimes. Using the tropospheric column FNR values from ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) satellite data as an indicator with the simulated threshold values, the spatial distributions of O3 formation regimes in China are determined. The O3 sensitivity regimes from eastern to central China are gradually from VOC-limited, transition to NOx-limited spatially, and moving toward to transition or NOx-limited regime from 2005 to 2019 temporally.