A review and evaluation of nonroad diesel mobile machinery emission control in China

Huan Liu , Pengju Bie , Liang Ji , Huanxing Cui , Gang Li , Shunli Liu , Ying Yuan , Kebin He


Received July 19, 2021,Revised , Accepted December 28, 2021, Available online January 05, 2022

Volume 123,2023,Pages 30-40

China's emission control for nonroad diesel mobile machinery (NDMM) must deal with a fast increase in stock as well as regulations that are two decades behind those for on-road vehicles. This study provides the first large-scale review and evaluation of China's NDMM policies, along with emission measurements and an investigation on diesel fuel quality. The sulfur contents of the investigated diesel declined from 430 ppm (median value) in 2011 to 6-8 ppm during the 2017-2018 period. The emission control of NOx and PM greatly improved with the shift from the China II to China IV standards, as demonstrated by engine tests and field NOx measurements. However, the NOx emission factors for non-type-approved engines were approximately twice the limits of the China II standards. Emission compliance based on bench tests was not sufficient to control actual emissions because the field-measured NOx emission factors of all machinery ranged from 24% to 225% greater than the respective emission limits for the engines. These circumstances adversely affected the effectiveness of the regulations and policies for China's emission control of NDMM. Nevertheless, the policies on new and in-use NDMM, as well as diesel fuel quality, prevented NOx and PM emissions amounting to 4.4 Tg and 297.8 Gg during the period 2008-2017, respectively. The emission management strategy contributed to enhancing the international competitiveness of China's NDMM industries by promoting advanced technologies. For effective NDMM emission control in the future, portable testing and noncontact remote supervision should be strengthened; also, the issue of noncompliant diesel should be addressed through rigorous control measures and financial penalties.

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