Iodoacetic acid (IAA) is an unregulated water disinfection byproduct that is an ovarian toxicant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying IAA toxicity in ovarian follicles remain unclear. Thus, we determined whether IAA alters gene expression in ovarian follicles in mice. Adult female mice were dosed with water or IAA (10 or 500 mg/L) in the water for 35-40 days. Antral follicles were collected for RNA-sequencing analysis and sera were collected to measure estradiol. RNA-sequencing analysis identified 1063 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 10 and 500 mg/L IAA groups (false discovery rate FDR < 0.1), respectively, compared to controls. Gene Ontology Enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were involved with RNA processing and regulation of angiogenesis (10 mg/L) and the cell cycle and cell division (500 mg/L). Pathway Enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, and insulin signaling pathways (10 mg/L). Pathway Enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were involved in the oocyte meiosis, GnRH, and oxytocin signaling pathways (500 mg/L). RNA-sequencing analysis identified 809 DEGs when comparing the 500 and 10 mg/L IAA groups (FDR < 0.1). DEGs were related to ribosome, translation, mRNA processing, oxidative phosphorylation, chromosome, cell cycle, cell division, protein folding, and the oxytocin signaling pathway. Moreover, IAA exposure significantly decreased estradiol levels (500 mg/L) compared to control. This study identified key candidate genes and pathways involved in IAA toxicity and can help to further understand the molecular mechanisms of IAA toxicity in ovarian follicles.