Effects of iodoacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproduct on the gut microbiota and its metabolism in rats

Xiao Wei , Yujie Sha , Huan Wu , Yue Guo , Xi Liu , Yan Mo , Qiyuan Yang , Shumao Wei , Kunling Long , Du Lu , Ying Xia , Weiwei Zheng , Zhiheng Su , Carsten Prasse , Xin Yang , Chao Chen , Bin Xu , Xing-Fang Li


Received November 03, 2021,Revised , Accepted February 20, 2022, Available online March 17, 2022

Volume 34,2022,Pages 91-104

Iodoacetic acid (IAA) is an unregulated disinfection byproduct in drinking water and has been shown to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, tumorigenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, the effects of IAA on gut microbiota and its metabolism are still unknown, especially the association between gut microbiota and the metabolism and toxicity of IAA. In this study, female and male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IAA at 0 and 16 mg/kg bw/day daily for 8 weeks by oral gavage. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that IAA could alter the diversity, relative abundance and function of gut microbiota in female and male rats. IAA also increased the abundance of genes related to steroid hormone biosynthesis in the gut microbiota of male rats. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed that IAA could significantly disturb 6 and 13 metabolites in the feces of female and male rats, respectively. In female rats, the level of androstanediol increased in the IAA treatment group. These results were consistent with our previous findings, where IAA was identified as an androgen disruptor. Additionally, the perturbed gut microbiota and altered metabolites were correlated with each other. The results of this study indicated that IAA could disturb gut microbiota and its metabolism. These changes in gut microbiota and its metabolism were associated with the reproductive and developmental toxicity of IAA.

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