Inactivation and subsequent reactivation of Aspergillus species by the combination of UV and monochloramine: Comparisons with UV/chlorine

Gang Wen , Gehui Wu , Hui Zhao , Qiqi Wan , Xiangqian Xu , Ruihua Cao , Kai Li , Jingyi Wang , Tinglin Huang , Jinsuo Lu , Carsten Prasse , Xin Yang , Chao Chen , Bin Xu , Xing-Fang Li


Received October 24, 2021,Revised , Accepted March 09, 2022, Available online March 23, 2022

Volume 34,2022,Pages 105-118

Ultraviolet (UV)/monochloramine (NH2Cl) as an advanced oxidation process was firstly applied for Aspergillus spores inactivation. This study aims to: i) clarify the inactivation and photoreactivation characteristics of UV/NH2Cl process, ii) compared with UV/Cl2 in inactivation efficiency, photoreactivation and energy consumption. The results illustrated that UV/NH2Cl showed better inactivation efficiency than that of UV alone and UV/Cl2, and could effectively control the photoreactivation. For instance, the inactivation rates for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus in the processes of UV/NH2Cl (2.0 mg/L) was 0.034, 0.030 and 0.061 cm2/mJ, respectively, which were higher than that of UV alone (0.027, 0.026 and 0.024 cm2/mJ) and UV/Cl2 (0.023, 0.026 and 0.031 cm2/mJ). However, there was no synergistic effect for Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. As for Aspergillus niger, the best synergistic effect can reach 1.86-log10. This may be due to their different resistance to disinfectants, which were related to the size, an outer layer of rodlets (hydrophobins) and pigments. After UV/NH2Cl inactivation, the degree of cell membrane damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species were higher than that of UV alone. UV/NH2Cl had the advantages of high inactivation efficiency and inhibition of photoreactivation, which provides a new entry point for the disinfection of waterborne fungi.

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