Comparison of UV and UV-LED activated sodium percarbonate for the degradation of O-desmethylvenlafaxine

Weizhu Chen , Jing Deng , Anhong Cai , Xiao Ling , Qian Sun , Tianxin Zhu , Qingsong Li , Xueyan Li


Received April 21, 2022,Revised , Accepted May 31, 2022, Available online June 10, 2022

Volume 35,2023,Pages 656-667

As an active metabolite of venlafaxine and emerging antidepressant, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN) was widely detected in different water bodies, which caused potential harm to human health and environmental safety. In this study, the comparative work on the ODVEN degradation by UV (254 nm) and UV-LED (275 nm) activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) systems was systematically performed. The higher removal rate of ODVEN can be achieved under UV-LED direct photolysis (14.99%) than UV direct photolysis (4.57%) due to the higher values of photolysis coefficient at the wavelength 275 nm. Significant synergistic effects were observed in the UV/SPC (80.38%) and UV-LED/SPC (53.57%) systems and the former exhibited better performance for the elimination of ODVEN. The degradation of ODVEN all followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics well in these processes, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs) increased with increasing SPC concentration. Radicals quenching experiments demonstrated that both ·OH and CO3· were involved in the degradation of ODVEN and the second-order rate constant of ODVEN with CO3· (1.58 × 108 (mol/L)−1 sec−1) was reported for the first time based on competitive kinetic method. The introduction of HA, Cl, NO3 and HCO3 inhibited the ODVEN degradation to varying degrees in the both processes. According to quantum chemical calculation, radical addition at the ortho-position of the phenolic hydroxyl group was confirmed to be the main reaction pathways for the oxidation of ODVEN by ·OH. In addition, the oxidation of ODVEN may involve the demethylation, H-abstraction, OH-addition and C-N bond cleavage. Eventually, the UV-LED/SPC process was considered to be more cost-effective compared to the UV/SPC process, although the UV/SPC process possessed a higher removal rate of ODVEN.

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