Emissions from mobile sources and stationary sources contribute to atmospheric pollution in China, and its components, which include ultrafine particles (UFPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and other reactive gases, such as NH3 and NOx, are the most harmful to human health. China has released various regulations and standards to address pollution from mobile and stationary sources. Thus, it is urgent to develop online monitoring technology for atmospheric pollution source emissions. This study provides an overview of the main progress in mobile and stationary source monitoring technology in China and describes the comprehensive application of some typical instruments in vital areas in recent years. These instruments have been applied to monitor emissions from motor vehicles, ships, airports, the chemical industry, and electric power generation. Not only has the level of atmospheric environment monitoring technology and equipment been improving, but relevant regulations and standards have also been constantly updated. Meanwhile, the developed instruments can provide scientific assistance for the successful implementation of regulations. According to the potential problem areas in atmospheric pollution in China, some research hotspots and future trends of atmospheric online monitoring technology are summarized. Furthermore, more advanced atmospheric online monitoring technology will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric pollution and improve environmental monitoring capacity.