Short-term effects of fine particulate matter constituents on myocardial infarction death

Yunquan Zhang , Shaocai Mo , Jianlin Hu , Chuanhua Yu , Junzhe Bao , Zhihao Shi , Peixuan Zhou , Zhiming Yang , Siqi Luo , Zhouxin Yin


Received November 29, 2021,Revised , Accepted July 11, 2022, Available online July 22, 2022

Volume 35,2023,Pages 60-69

Existing evidence suggested that short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may increase the risk of death from myocardial infarction (MI), while PM2.5 constituents responsible for this association has not been determined. We collected 12,927 MI deaths from 32 counties in southern China during 2011–2013. County-level exposures of ambient PM2.5 and its 5 constituents (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulfate (SO42-), ammonium (NH4+), and nitrate (NO3-)) were aggregated from gridded datasets predicted by Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. We employed a space-time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models to quantify the association of MI mortality with short-term exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents across various lag days. Over the study period, the daily mean PM2.5 mass concentration was 77.8 (standard deviation (SD) = 72.7) µg/m3. We estimated an odds ratio of 1.038 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003–1.074), 1.038 (1.013–1.063) and 1.057 (1.023–1.097) for MI mortality associated with per interquartile range (IQR) increase in the 3-day moving-average exposure to PM2.5 (IQR = 76.3 µg/m3), EC (4.1 µg/m3) and OC (9.1 µg/m3), respectively. We did not identify significant association between MI death and exposure to water-soluble ions (SO42-, NH4+ and NO3-). Likelihood ratio tests supported no evident violations of linear assumptions for constituents-MI associations. Subgroup analyses showed stronger associations between MI death and EC/OC exposure in the elderly, males and cold months. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 constituents, particularly those carbonaceous aerosols, was associated with increased risks of MI mortality.

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