Household energy stacking and structures in Pakistan – Results from a multiple-energy study in Azad Kashmir and Punjab

Shu Tao , Xiaoqiao Jiao , Rui Xiong , Zhihan Luo , Yaojie Li , Hefa Cheng , Audil Rashid , Guofeng Shen


Received May 30, 2022,Revised , Accepted July 18, 2022, Available online July 26, 2022

Volume 35,2023,Pages 152-160

Solid fuel use (SFU) is common in most developing countries and would release many hazardous air pollutants posing high risks on human health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study highlighted risks associated with household SFU in Pakistan, however, high uncertainties prevail because of scanty data on SFU and unaccounted energy stacking. This study conducted a field campaign aiming at collecting first-hand data on household energy mix in Pakistan. The first survey was in Punjab and Azad Kashmir, and revealed that stacked energy use was pervasive, especially for cooking. The stacking was found to be much more obvious in SFU households (defined as those using SFU dominantly) compared to those non-SFU. There were significantly substantial differences between Azad Kashmir and Punjab because of distinct resources available and economic conditions. Woody materials comprised up to nearly 70% in Azad Kashmir, but in Punjab, gas was frequently used for cooking. Only investigating primary household energy would probably overestimate main energy types that being used for a longer time but underestimated other supplements, suggesting the preference of multiple-energy surveys in household energy studies.

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