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Adverse effects of exposure to fine particles and ultrafine particles in the environment on different organs of organisms

Baiqi Wang , Jianwei Zhang , Zhao Chen , Dan Shan , Yang Wu , Yue Zhao , Chen Li , Yue Shu , Xiaoyu Linghu


Received March 10, 2022,Revised , Accepted August 08, 2022, Available online August 19, 2022

Volume 36,2024,Pages 449-473

Particulate pollution is a global risk factor that seriously threatens human health. Fine particles (FPs) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) have small particle diameters and large specific surface areas, which can easily adsorb metals, microorganisms and other pollutants. FPs and UFPs can enter the human body in multiple ways and can be easily and quickly absorbed by the cells, tissues and organs. In the body, the particles can induce oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis, furthermore causing great adverse effects. Epidemiological studies mainly take the population as the research object to study the distribution of diseases and health conditions in a specific population and to focus on the identification of influencing factors. However, the mechanism by which a substance harms the health of organisms is mainly demonstrated through toxicological studies. Combining epidemiological studies with toxicological studies will provide a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the impact of PM on the health of organisms. In this review, the sources, compositions, and morphologies of FPs and UFPs are briefly introduced in the first part. The effects and action mechanisms of exposure to FPs and UFPs on the heart, lungs, brain, liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, joints and reproductive system are systematically summarized. In addition, challenges are further pointed out at the end of the paper. This work provides useful theoretical guidance and a strong experimental foundation for investigating and preventing the adverse effects of FPs and UFPs on human health.

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