Copper-uptake mediated by an ecofriendly zwitterionic ionic liquid: A new challenge for a cleaner bioeconomy

Albert Nguyen Van Nhien , Marie E. Vuillemin , Christophe Waterlot , Anthony Verdin , Sylvain Laclef , Christine Cézard , David Lesur , Catherine Sarazin , Dominique Courcot , Caroline Hadad , Eric Husson


Received July 29, 2022,Revised , Accepted October 08, 2022, Available online October 20, 2022

Volume 130,2023,Pages 92-101

This study aims to investigate the ability of an imidazolium biobased Zwitterionic Ionic Liquids (ZILs) in enhancing the phytoavailability of copper from garden (G) and vineyard (V) soils using the model plant ryegrass. Uncontaminated and artificially contaminated CuSO4 soils, unamended and ZIL-amended soil modalities were designed. The copper/ZIL molar ratio (1/4) introduced was rationally established based on molecular modeling and on the maximal copper concentration in artificially contaminated soil. Higher accumulation of copper in the shoots was detected for the uncontaminated and copper contaminated ZIL amended V soils (18.9 and 23.3 mg/kg, respectively) contrary to G soils together with a ZIL concentration of around 3% (W/W) detected by LC-MS analyses. These data evidenced a Cu-accumulation improvement of 38% and 66% compared to non-amended V soils (13.6 and 13.9 mg/kg respectively). ZIL would be mainly present under Cu(II)-ZIL4 complexes in the shoots. The impact on the chemical composition of shoot was also studied. The results show that depending on the soils modalitity, the presence of free copper and/or ZIL led to different chemical compositions in lignin and monomeric sugar contents. In the biorefinery context, performances of enzymatic hydrolysis of shoots were also related to the presence of both ZIL and copper under free or complex forms. Ecotoxicity assessment of the vineyard soil samples indicated that the quantity of copper and ZIL remaining in the soils had no significant toxicity. ZIL amendment in a copper-contaminated soil was demonstrated as being a promising way to promote the valorization of phytoremediation plants.

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