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Effects of operating conditions on iron (hydr)oxides evolution and ciprofloxacin degradation in potassium ferrate-ozone stepwise oxidation system

Hongbo Wang , Xiaochen Li , Yifan Wang , Ning Wang , Mei Li , Maomao Bai , Jingtao Xu


Received October 18, 2022,Revised , Accepted December 13, 2022, Available online December 21, 2022

Volume 36,2024,Pages 367-378

In this study, a stepwise oxidation system of potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) combined with ozone (O3) was used to degrade ciprofloxacin (CIP). The effects of pH and pre-oxidation time of K2FeO4 on the evolution of K2FeO4 reduction products (iron (hydr)oxides) and CIP degradation were investigated. It was found that in addition to its own oxidation capacity, K2FeO4 can also influence the treatment effect of CIP by changing the catalyst content. The presence of iron (hydr)oxides effectively enhanced the mineralization rate of CIP by catalyzing ozonation. The pH value can influence the content and types of the components with catalytic ozonation effect in iron (hydr)oxides. The K2FeO4 pre-oxidation stage can produce more iron (hydr)oxides with catalytic components for subsequent ozonation, but the evolution of iron (hydr)oxides components was influenced by O3 treatment. It can also avoid the waste of oxidation capacity owing to the oxidation of iron (hydr)oxides by O3 and free radicals. The intermediate degradation products were identified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Besides, the degradation pathways were proposed. Among the degradation products of CIP, the product with broken quinolone ring structure only appeared in the stepwise oxidation system.

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