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Migration and distribution characteristics of soil heavy metal(loid)s at a lead smelting site


Shengguo Xue , Chuxuan Li , Mu Li , Jiaqing Zeng , Shanxin Yuan , Xinghua Luo , Chuan Wu

DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2023.02.007

Received December 14, 2022,Revised , Accepted February 02, 2023, Available online February 11, 2023

Volume 36,2024,Pages 600-609

Heavy metal(loid)s contamination is a constant issue at smelting sites. It is essential to investigate the spatial distribution and migration characteristics of heavy metal(loid)s in the soil for environmental management and remediation strategies of non-ferrous smelting sites. In this study, 203 soil samples from 57 sites were collected in a typical lead smelting site. The findings demonstrated that there were significant Pb, Zn, Cd, and As contamination in soil samples. The spatial distribution of heavy metal(loid)s showed strong spatial heterogeneity, the contaminated soil areas of Pb, As, Cd, and Zn were 99.5%, 98.9%, 85.3%, and 72.4%, respectively. Pb, Cd, and As contamination of the soil reached a depth of 5 m, which migrated from the surface to deep soil layers. The leaching contents of Zn, Pb, and As decreased obviously in 3-4 m soil layer, but the leaching content of Cd was still high, which indicated the high migration of Cd. With the increase of depth, the proportion of acid soluble fraction of heavy metal(loid)s decreased, and the residual fraction increased. The acid soluble fraction of Cd accounted for a higher proportion, and As mainly existed in reducible and residual fractions in soil. According to the calculation of the migration factor, the migration of heavy metal(loid)s in soils were ordered as Cd > Zn > Pb > As. The outcomes are advantageous for risk reduction and site remediation for non-ferrous metal smelting sites.

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