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Comparative study between three carbonaceous nanoblades and nanodarts for antimicrobial applications

Sherif A. El-Safty , Mohamed S. Selim , Ahmed M. Azzam , Mohamed A. Shenashen , Shimaa A. Higazy , Bayaumy B. Mostafa


Received October 09, 2022,Revised , Accepted February 19, 2023, Available online March 01, 2023

Volume 36,2024,Pages 594-605

The design of nanostructured materials occupies a privileged position in the development and management of affordable and effective technology in the antibacterial sector. Here, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of three carbonaceous nanoblades and nanodarts materials of graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that have a mechano-bactericidal effect, and the ability to piercing or slicing bacterial membranes. To demonstrate the significance of size, morphology and composition on the antibacterial activity mechanism, the designed nanomaterials have been characterized. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), standard agar well diffusion, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to evaluate the antibacterial activity of GO, RGO, and SWCNTs. Based on the evidence obtained, the three carbonaceous materials exhibit activity against all microbial strains tested by completely encapsulating bacterial cells and causing morphological disruption by degrading the microbial cell membrane in the order of RGO > GO > SWCNTs. Because of the external cell wall structure and outer membrane proteins, the synthesized carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains than Gram-negative and fungal microorganisms. RGO had the lowest MIC values (0.062, 0.125, and 0.25 mg/mL against B. subtilis, S. aureus, and E. coli, respectively), as well as minimum fungal concentrations (0.5 mg/mL for both A. fumigatus and C. albicans). At 12 hr, the cell viability values against tested microbial strains were completely suppressed. Cell lysis and death occurred as a result of severe membrane damage caused by microorganisms perched on RGO nanoblades. Our work gives an insight into the design of effective graphene-based antimicrobial materials for water treatment and remediation.

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