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Molybdenum and cadmium co-induce necroptosis through Th1/Th2 imbalance-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in duck ovaries

Caiying Zhang , Ting Cui , Xueyan Dai , Huiling Guo , Dianyun Wang , Bingyan Huang , Wenjing Pu , Xuesheng Chu


Received March 23, 2023,Revised , Accepted July 10, 2023, Available online July 15, 2023

Volume 36,2024,Pages 92-102

Cadmium (Cd) and excess molybdenum (Mo) pose serious threats to animal health. Our previous study has determined that Cd and/or Mo exposure can cause ovarian damage of ducks, while the specific mechanism is still obscure. To further investigate the toxic mechanism of Cd and Mo co-exposure in the ovary, forty 8-day-old female ducks were randomly allocated into four groups for 16 weeks, and the doses of Cd and Mo in basic diet per kg were as follows: control group, Mo group (100 mg Mo), Cd group (4 mg Cd), and Mo + Cd group (100 mg Mo + 4 mg Cd). Cadmium sulfate 8/3-hydrate (CdSO4·8/3H2O) and hexaammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) were the origins of Cd and Mo, respectively. At the 16th week of the experiment, all ovary tissues were collected for the detection of related indexes. The data indicated that Mo and/or Cd induced trace element disorders and Th1/Th2 balance to divert toward Th1 in the ovary, which activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and then provoked necroptosis through triggering RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL signaling pathway, and eventually caused ovarian pathological injuries and necroptosis characteristics. The alterations of above indicators were most apparent in the joint group. Above all, this research illustrates that Mo and/or Cd exposure can initiate necroptosis through Th1/Th2 imbalance-modulated ER stress in duck ovaries, and Mo and Cd combined exposure aggravates ovarian injuries. This research explores the molecular mechanism of necroptosis caused by Mo and/or Cd, which reveals that ER stress attenuation may be a therapeutic target to alleviate necroptosis.

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