Recent Published Articles

Degradation behaviors of Nabumetone and its metabolite during UV/monochloramine process: Experimental and theoretical study

Qi Zhang , Xiang Tu , Yunsong Bai , Qing Fu , Sheng Chang , Kunfeng Zhang , Yang Pan , Ruiyang Xiao , Yifu Fu


Received May 09, 2023,Revised , Accepted July 11, 2023, Available online July 17, 2023

Volume 36,2024,Pages 103-114

This study investigated degradation behaviors of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Nabumetone (NMT) and its major metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (MNA) in the coupling process of ultraviolet and monochloramine (UV/NH2Cl). The second-order rate constants of the contaminants reacting with reactive radicals (HO•, Cl•, Cl2, and CO3) were determined by laser flash photolysis experiments. HO• and Cl• contributed predominantly with 52.3% and 21.7% for NMT degradation and 60.8% and 22.3% for MNA degradation. The presence of chlorides retarded the degradation of NMT, while promoted the destruction of MNA, which was ascribed to the photosensitization effects of MNA under UV irradiation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that radical adduct formation (RAF) was dominant pathway for both HO• and Cl• reacting with the contaminants, and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) preferred to occur on side chains of NMT and MNA. NMT reacted with NO2• through single electron transfer (SET) with the second-order rate constant calculated to be 5.35 × 107 (mol/L)−1 sec−1, and the contribution of NO2• was predicted to be 13.0% of the total rate constant of NMT in pure water, which indicated that NO2• played a non-negligible role in the degradation of NMT. The acute toxicity and developmental toxicity of NMT were enhanced after UV/NH2Cl treatment, while those of MNA were alleviated. The transformation products of both NMT and MNA exhibited higher mutagenicity than their parent compounds. This study provides a deep understanding of the mechanism of radical degradation of NMT and MNA in the treatment of UV/NH2Cl.

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